b) 1 Tim 2:8: Paul wrote, “I desire that men in every place lift up holy hands free of anger and disputing.”

Anger and dissension block effective prayer (Matt 5:21–24; Eph 4:29–32, 1 Pet 3:7).[1]

As in Judaism and other Ancient Near Eastern cultures, people in the Greco-Roman world typically stood with their hands raised while praying (Exod 17:8–13; 1 Ki 8:22–26).[2]

Elsewhere in Paul’s letters, anēr/andros (“man, male, husband”) and gynē (“woman, female, wife”) occur together in the context of marriage (Rom 7:2–3; 1 Cor 7:1–4, 10–16, 32–34; 1 Cor 14:34–35; Eph 5:21–33; Col 3:18–19; Tit 1:6).

The exception to this appears in 1 Cor 11:3–13.[3]

Therefore, 1 Tim 2:8–15 may apply to spousal relationships, rather than to congregations.[4]

Whichever is correct, the doctrinal disputes concerning women in Ephesus engulfed even the men in the church.[5]

 Image via Wikimedia Commons


b) Read 1 Tim 2:8. What makes anger while praying inappropriate? Do you think this verse applies to marriage or to relationships within congregations? Why do you believe that?





Go to Adorned with Good Works (1 Tim 2:9–10)


[Related posts include The Cult of Artemis (False Teaching in Ephesus); Adorned with Good Works (1 Tim 2:9–10); She Must Learn (1 Tim 2:11); Domineering Women (1 Tim 2:12–14); Saved through Childbearing (1 Tim 2:15); God Hates Violence (Mal 2:13–16); Partners in Ministry (Acts 18:1–3, 18–20, 24–26 and 2 Ki 22:11–23:4; Effects of the Fall Reversed (Rom 5:12–21 and Rom 16:1–12); Three Heads (1 Cor 11:3); Three Heads (1 Cor 11:3); Women Praying and Prophesying (1 Cor 11:4–6 and 1 Cor 14:34–35); Having Authority over Her Head (1 Cor 11:7–10); Interdependence (1 Cor 11:11–12); Unity in the Spirit (Eph 5:18–21); Submissive to One Another (Eph 5:21–24); Sacrificial Love (Eph 5:25–30); and Living Together with Understanding (1 Pet 3:7–9)]

[Click here to go to Women and Marriage Throughout Redemptive History; or to Chapter 8: Pain and Desire (Genesis 3:16, 20)]


[1]I. Howard Marshall and Philip H. Towner, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles (ICC; London; New York: T & T Clark, 2004), 445.

[2] Keener, IVPBBCNT2, 605.

[3]Result of Logos 8 word study on gynē.

[4]Gordon P. Hugenberger, “Women in Church Office: Hermeneutics or Exegesis. A Survey of Approaches to 1Tim 2:8–15,” JETS 35, no. 3, September 1992: 341–60, 354, http://womeninthechurch.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/hugenberger%20women%20in%20church%20office%20re%20husbands%20and%20wives%20issue%20in%201%20timothy%202.pdf.

[5]Marshall and Towner, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, 446.