ABD                  Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by David Noel Freedman. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992

ACW               Ancient Christian Writers

AJA                  American Journal of Archaeology

ANE                Ancient Near East/Ancient Near Eastern

ANET              Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Edited by Jamers B. Pritchard. 3rd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969

ANF                Ante-Nicene Fathers

APOT              The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. Edited by Robert H. Charles. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1913

ARAB              Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. Daniel David Luckenbill. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1926‒1927.

ARE                 Ancient Records of Egypt. Edited by James Henry Breasted. 5 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1906–1907. Repr., New York: Russell & Russell, 1962

ATJ                    Ashland Theological Journal

b.                        Babylonian Talmud

BAR                 Biblical Archaeology Review

BCOTWP     Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms

BDAG           Danker, Frederick W., Walter Bauer, William F. Arndt, and F. Wilbur Gingrich. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000 (Danker-Bauer-Arndt-Gingrich)

BDB             Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, Enhanced Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research

BEB                Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible. Edited by Walter A. Elwell. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988

BECNT        Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

BHS                Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Edited by Karl Elliger and Wilhelm Rudolph. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgeschellschaft, 1983

BibSem       The Biblical Seminar

BJRL              Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester

BTB                Biblical Theology Bulletin

CAD              The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of  Chicago. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1956–2006.

CBQ               Catholic Biblical Quarterly

CC                 Continental Commentaries

CHALOT     A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. William L. Holladay, Leiden: Brill, 2000

COS2             The Context of Scripture: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. William W. Hallo, Ed., Assoc. ed. Jr. Younger K. Lawson. Leiden, New York, Köln: Brill, 2000.

CTJ                 Calvin Theological Journal

DBI                 Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. Edited by Leland Ryken, James C. Wilhoit, Tremper Longman III, Colin Duriez, Douglas Penney, and Daniel G. Reid.Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998

DBLSDH       Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains: Hebrew (Old Testament). Edited by James Swanson, Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, 1997

DBW             Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works

DJG                 Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Edited by Joel B. Green, Jeannine K. Brown, and Nicholas Perrin. 2nd ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2013

DLNT             Dictionary of the Later New Testament and its Developments. Edited by Ralph P. Martin and Peter H. Davids. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997

DNTB             Dictionary of New Testament Background: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. Edited by Craig A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000

DPL                Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne and Ralph P. Martin. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993

DSD                Dead Sea Discoveries

DSS                Dead Sea Scrolls

EDBT              Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, Walter A. Elwell, ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996. Electronic edition.

EvQ                 The Evangelical Quarterly

Expedition    Expedition: Bulletin of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania

FC                    Fathers of the Church

GKC                Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar. Edited by Emil Kautzsch. Translated by Arthur E. Cowley, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910

GNT               Good News Translation

HBD                HarperCollins Bible Dictionary. Edited by Mark Allan Powell et al. 3rd ed. San Francisco: HarperOne, 2011

HolBD            Holman Bible Dictionary. Edited by Trent C. Butler. Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers, 1991

HSem              Horae semiticae. Margaret Dunlop Gibson et al. 9 vols. London: Clay; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1903–1916

HTR                Harvard Theological Review

IBC                 Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Preaching and Teaching

ICC                 International Critical Commentary

IVPBBCOT  IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament. Edited by Victor H. Matthews, Mark W. Chavalas, and John H. Walton, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000. Electronic edition.

IVPBBNT    IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament. Craig S. Keener, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. Electronic edition.

IVPBBCNT2 The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament, Second Ed. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2014.

IVPNTCS    The IVP New Testament Commentary Series

JAMA             Journal of the American Medical Association

JANESCU      Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University

JASA               Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation

JBL                 Journal of Biblical Literature

JBQ                Jewish Bible Quarterly

JETS              Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

JGRChJ        Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism

JNES             Journal of Near Eastern Studies

JR                   Journal of Religion

JSNT              Journal for the Study of the New Testament

LBD              Lexham Bible Dictionary Edited by John D. Barry, Derek R. Bomar, Rachel Klippenstein, Douglas Mangum, Carrie Sinclair Wolcott, Lazarus Wentz, Elliot Ritzema, and Wendy Widder. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

LCL              Loeb Classical Library

LES                Lexham English Septuagint. Translated by Rick Brannan, Ken M. Penner, Israel Loken, Michael Aubrey, and Isaiah Hoogendyk. Bellingham, WA: Lexham, 2012

LXX                Septuagint

m.                     Mishnah

Macc              Maccabees

MT                  Masoretic Text

NA28             Novum Testamentum Graecae, 28th ed. Edited by Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, and Allen Wikgren. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2013

NABR            New American Bible, Revised Edition

NAC               New American Commentary

NASB             New American Standard Bible, 1995 revision

NDBT              New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by T. Desmond Alexander and Brian S. Rosner. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000

NDT                 New Dictionary of Theology. Edited by Sinclair B. Ferguson and J. I. Packer.    Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000

NEA                  Near Eastern Archaeology

NICNT           New International Commentary on the New Testament

NICOT           New International Commentary on the Old Testament

NIDNTTE      New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis, 2nd Ed. Edited by Moises Silva. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2014

NIDOTTE       New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. Edited by Willem A. VanGemeren. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997

NIGTC            New International Greek Testament Commentary

NIVAC            NIV Application Commentary

NPNF1           Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 1

NPNF2           Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 2

NSBT              New Studies in Biblical Theology

NT                   New Testament

NTS                   New Testament Studies

Or                       Orientalia (NS)

OT                    Old Testament

OTP                  Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. 2 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1985

PCNT               Paideia Commentary on the New Testament

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci            Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

PNTC               Pillar New Testament Commentary

Ps Sol               Psalm of Solomon

PSCF                  Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith

RA                      Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale

RANE                Readings from the Ancient Near East. Edited by Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002

RSV                  Revised Standard Edition

RTR                    Reformed Theological Review

TDNT                Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Edited by Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich. Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. 10 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964–1976

TDNTWA         The NIV Theological Dictionary of New Testament Words, Abridged. Edited by Verlyn D. Verbrugge. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000

TDOT                 Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Edited by Johannes Botterweck, Heinz-Josef Fabry, and Helmer Ringgren. Translated by John T. Willis et al. 15 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974–2015

TLNT                 Theological Lexicon of the New Testament. C. Spicq. Translated and edited by J. D. Ernest. 3 vols. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994

TS                        Texts and Studies

TynBul               Tyndale Bulletin

USQR                 Union Seminary Quarterly Review

WBC                Word Biblical Commentary

WTJ                   Westminster Theological Journal

YCS                   Yale Classical Studies

ZECNT             Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament